On 1 January 1949, a UN-brokered ceasefire was concluded between India and Pakistan, ending the 1947 Indo-Pakistan War (also known as the 1947 Kashmir War). In October 1947, fighting broke out in Kashmir between the two newly independent countries, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir, who joined India, and Pakistan, which supported the rebels. Fighting was limited to Kashmir, but as India feared it would turn to a global international war, India referred the matter to the UN Security Council, in accordance with Article 35 of the UN Charter, which deals with situations “likely to threaten the maintenance of international peace.” The Security Council established the United Nations Special Commission for India and Pakistan, which acted as a mediator for a year during which the fighting continued. Following several UN resolutions establishing a referendum settlement procedure, a ceasefire agreement was reached in late December 1948 between the countries, which came into force last year. The Security Council has established the United Nations Military Observer Group on India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor the ceasefire line.  In 2018, India declared a ceasefire in the Kashmir Valley during Ramadan.  The Nagorno-Karabakh 2020 ceasefire agreement is a ceasefire agreement that ended the Nagorno-Karabakh war in 2020. Signed on 9 November by Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev, Prime Minister Nikol Pachinjan and Russian President Vladimir Putin, it ended all hostilities in the Nagorno-Karabakh region from 00:00, 10 November 2020 Moscow time.   The President of the self-declared Artsakh Republic, Arayik Harutyunyan, also agreed to the end of hostilities.  The agreement (“The statement of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Desm., Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia and President of the Russian Federation”) stipulates that the new agreement calls for the use of a coordination mechanism to deal with ceasefire violations, which convenes an extraordinary meeting of the CCG by facilitating the Joint Centre for Control and Coordination (CCCCC).
The JCCC is a group of representatives from Ukraine, Russia and the Russian-led armed formations of the DNR and NRL, charged with complying with the agreements reached by the TCG. If this coordination mechanism does not reduce fighting, the agreement authorizes retaliatory fire after the development of a military command, a public statement on these orders and communication to the TCG (OSCE SMM-Ukraine, July 23, 2020). This approach, which allows front-line units to respond to ceasefire violations, can help reduce unintended escalation, although an intentional escalation is still possible if Russia or Ukraine calculate that such an escalation is beneficial. President Aliyev said the agreement was of “historical importance” and that it was a “capitulation” of Armenia.